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The legal system of Bangladesh is based on the common law tradition, which has been influenced by English common law due to historical ties with British colonial rule. The legal system consists of multiple components, including statutory law, case law, and Islamic law (applicable to personal matters for Muslims).
Here are some key elements of the legal system in Bangladesh:
Constitution: The Constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law of the land and provides the framework for the legal system. It establishes the fundamental rights of citizens, the structure of the state, and the powers and responsibilities of different branches of government.
Statutory Law: The Parliament of Bangladesh is responsible for enacting laws through legislation. Statutory laws include acts, ordinances, and regulations that cover a wide range of subjects, including criminal law, civil law, commercial law, family law, and administrative law.
Case Law: In addition to statutory laws, the legal system in Bangladesh relies on case law or precedents set by higher courts. The decisions of the Supreme Court, particularly the Appellate Division, are binding on lower courts and serve as important sources of law.
Judiciary: The judiciary in Bangladesh is independent of the executive and legislative branches. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in the country and is composed of the Appellate Division and the High Court Division. The Supreme Court is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and ensuring the rule of law.
Islamic Law: Bangladesh is a predominantly Muslim country, and Islamic law, known as Sharia law, is applicable to personal matters for Muslims. Family law matters, such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance, are governed by Islamic principles and are adjudicated by specialized Islamic courts called Qazi courts.
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